Stage Combat 101
By: Glen Kyle


Stage combat, in simplest terms, is pretending to fight for the benefit of an audience. Almost everyone in the United States has seen it in one form or another: on stage, on television, at the movies. It can range from a single punch to a full-scale 'battle' between armies of hundreds of actor/combatants. This essay will attempt to describe and explain, for the absolute beginner, what stage combat is, isn't, and the very basics of putting together a choreographed swordfight. HOWEVER, if one has access nearby to any workshops or experienced teachers/combatants, it is best to learn firsthand from them in a controlled, safe environment. I have written this for the benefit of those who don't have immediate access to such resources, as was my case when growing up. It is also written somewhat simultaneously from choreographer AND combatant standpoints, as this could often be the same person. I learned the hard way, self taught to a degree, and started out being both choreographer AND combatant because there simply wasn't anyone else. I want to share my experiences with those of you who are in the same situation I was in my younger days: wanting to learn and not knowing where or how. There's no point in re-inventing the wheel. I do hope, however, that it might prove to be a handy tool for those who may already have a little experience. And remember, these are all my opinions based on personal experience. If you like it, great; If you disagree, congratulations! You are a free-thinking individual. I just hope to help everybody out as much as possible.

Oh, and so I don't get sued, I guess I'd better say: Neither I (Glen Kyle) nor any publisher of this paper assumes nor will assume any responsibility for any injury or damage that may occur from putting into practice the ideas and actions described in this work, nor will we be responsible for injury or damage from practicing or performing stage combat in general; do so at your own risk. At the end of the essay, I've also included a list of sources (people, paper, and on-line) that may come in handy for research and equipment. I'm leaving it up to the reader to check historical sources on weapons, armour, usage, and actual combat. This can be done at most local libraries.

Stage combat IS
First, what stage combat is. As I said before, it is pretending to fight for an audience. We've all roughhoused, playing around to impress friends and family, but this isn't quite what I speak of. Stage combat is a series of PRE-PLANNED, SAFELY executed moves. That is to say, there should be no changes, no surprises, and no extemporaneous blows thrown in. The purpose of stage combat is and MUST be to artistically and effectively serve the overall goal of the production of which it is a part. Just 'making something up' to cover the stage direction "they fight" will make for a poor performance indeed, and could ruin the entire aura of the show; if a fight is present it is often the climax of the entire story. The best example I know of how it SHOULD be done is in the movie Rob Roy starring Liam Neeson and Tim Roth. The duel between the two at the end of the movie (fight director: William Hobbes) is so much more than swords swinging: the attitudes conveyed, the fighting styles, even the individual moves help to define not only their characters, but their interaction throughout the course of the entire movie. Conversely, it is also usually a bad idea to create a couple of fights and build a plot around them, no matter how nice the fights are. If you are a diehard fan of swashbuckling (I know I am!) you could probably watch just swordfighting all day long and be perfectly happy. However, most audience members are not of that vein, and can quickly grow tired of 'whack whack whack' with little else to round it out. Stage combat is not a means unto itself, but holds a very important place in the performance world. It is only one of the myriad of special skill that come together to produce a quality production. The fight must be given neither too small of a role nor too much of one. And of course, one of the most important things for a fight to be is exciting and entertaining to watch.

Stage combat IS NOT
And there are some things that stage combat is NOT. Stage combat is not a martial art, it is not a means of self-defense, and it is not meant to portray actual combat. In a martial art, or actual combat, the key is to learn and use skills that will allow you to hurt/disable /kill your opponent as quickly as possible. The exact opposite is the aim of stage combat: to NOT hurt your opponent at all. Therefore, the methods used in stage combat are theoretically non-violent, and should NOT be considered a means of self-defense. And stage combat should not be considered to represent the way actual combat is/would have been: it usually doesn't, but it very well could (depending on the choreographer). An example of a great stage fight that is not in the least bit realistic is the duel between Inigo and Westly in The Princess Bride (fight director: Bob Anderson). An example of realistic combat in the movies (if not THE example) is Saving Private Ryan. Granted, this was on a VERY large scale. Why then is it so uncommon for a choreographed fight on stage and screen to be Unrealistic? Because in reality, fights were/are usually over very quick. It is obviously not very entertaining to have the climatic fight in an epic story between a hero and a villain last 10 seconds. So we have to beef it up a little to make it entertaining and to help move the story along at a more exciting pace.

On a similar note, it should be pointed out that some historical recreation/re-enactment groups (SCA, Dagorhir, Markland, etc) have fights between members using padded weapons (boffers), wooden sticks, etc. This is also not stage combat, because it is all completely unplanned. The fights in these groups are actual contests based on skill and force within a framework of rules. This allows safe, unchoreographed, if not altogether realistic, fights. Other groups exist solely study historical combat, the foremost of which is the Historical Armed Combat Association (HACA). This is also not stage combat, but the actual study of practical swordsmanship. Though completely different than stage combat, I feel that examining the practices of these groups can allow stage combatants to pick up pointers to make their fights more effective, and also help choreographers make their fights more realistic.

Now onto the meat of the matter: How to create, practice and perform a stage fight.

How to come up with a fight? Good question, one that choreographers constantly have to ask, just as they are constantly having to re-invent the answer. The most important aspect to remember is SAFETY, throughout the entire process. Don't go faster than you are comfortable with, follow the choreography, don't be over-zealous. Remember: the other guy isn't ACTUALLY trying to kill you, despite the bloodlust in his eyes (that's acting). You are two (or more) combatants who are trying to put on a good show. Don't panic, and remember that we're all on the same side.

As I said before, this paper will focus on giving the very basics of sword combat for the stage. If you want to throw in a kick or punch somewhere, remember: don't actually hit the other guy. Also, I won't cover 'selling the fight' here; it involves acting. All I'll say is: grunt and scream a lot. There are in general two types of swordfights in plays: Those using rapiers and those using broadswords (a Victorian mislabeling; the true classification is medieval war sword. However, most stage combat refers to them as broadswords, so for this particular venue so will I, simply because it's easier to type. You'll need to do a little research on the different types of swords.

Now that you know what a rapier or broadsword is (if you didn't already) you will choose what type to use for the fight. This depends on the setting and director's vision of the production. Picking out stage combat weapons can be very tricky indeed. There are some definite do's and don'ts involved. For the sake of safety of both you and your audience, don't use any weapons unless they come from the suppliers listed at the end of this essay, unless they have been inspected and approved by an experienced stage combatant. Many of the swords available today were meant to be decorative wallhangers, and having stainless steel blades can not and will not stand up to the rigors of stage combat. Also, if you are unsure about what to get, I would suggest renting weapons rather than buying them, at least in the beginning. This allows you to try different kinds out for yourself without committing to what can be a very expensive investment. For the very basics, I'm going to oversimplify and say that stage fights between rapier and broadsword can be very similar, the main difference being you will be performing more cutting moves with the broadsword and more thrusting moves with the rapier. Because of this and the weight difference in these weapons, rapier fights will tend to be more fast-paced and athletic, whereas broadsword fights are somewhat slower and better for 'armoured juggernaut' type fights. The key is to create an exciting fight that can be repeatedly carried out safely. To do this, the fight must be divided into separate moves that can be recorded on paper. I have divided sword blows into 6 basic moves. Below is an illustration and a description illustrating the different blows. It is given from the point of view as though you are the attacker looking at your opponent.


    1 This is a basic overhead swing, perpendicular to the ground, whose virtual target should be the top of your opponent's head. You should swing as though your intent was to cleave the person right down the middle. However, don't do this. Apart from a 6, this is probably the most dangerous.
    2 This is a cut parallel to the ground at your opponent's left shoulder.
    3 This is a cut parallel to the ground at your opponent's right shoulder.
    4 This is cut to the opponent's left leg. While swinging parallel to the ground is not practical with this move, it should still be done along clean lines, with your weapon pointed down at approximately a 45° angle, maintaining this angle as much as possible throughout the swing.
    5 This is a cut to the opponent's right leg. See 4 for attack lines.
    6 This is a thrust to the opponent's torso. This is the most dangerous move, and extreme care should be taken in executing any thrust. As thrusts are more predominant in rapier fighting, this thrust can be divided into three parts: 6a (thrust to the head BE VERY CAREFUL!), 6b (thrust to the torso) and 6c (thrust to the legs). If it makes it easier for you, simply make 6 = 6, 7, and 8.

Again, you are NOT trying to defeat your opponent, and they are NOT trying to kill you. Swinging full force (or even close to it) is not only unsafe but also completely unnecessary. Control and precision are necessary between the combatants; the level of force and intensity depends on them portraying it to be so, not actually making it so. That's that acting thing again. This is not saying that you should be wimpy about it either. If one of you thinks the other is hitting to hard, then you probably are. Let your opponent know so.

How to parry these?
All parries/block should be just as crisp as the attacks. The blades should make a nice perpendicular X every time they meet. A parry isn't so much a swing to meet the incoming attack, but a static positioning of your sword to meet the attack (this does not apply to thrusting attacks). These instructions are assuming your opponent is making the attacks, and the numbers represent the attacks he is making. Refer to the dashed swords in the illustration for ideal sword placement for a parry to that area.

  1. Bring your sword well above the level of your head, having it run parallel to the ground and perpendicular to the swing of the attacker.
  2. Bring your sword to the left side of your body, with the sword a comfortable distance away from you body (but don't overstretch it). The sword should be perpendicular to the ground and completely vertical (pommel down, point up). Try to place it so that the center of the blade is at the level of your shoulder, so that you will have the maximum chance of safely intercepting the attacker's blade.
  3. Bring your sword to the right side of your body, using the techniques discussed in 2.
  4. Bring your sword to the left side of your body, placing the blade down at approximately a 45° angle. As in two above make this parry comfortably away from your body, but do not overextend. With a rapier this move can be made somewhat differently, allowing for the easy maneuverability of the lighter blade. Have the sword in your hand, pointing straight out. Then point the sword down to the ground. Finally, rotate your arm at the elbow to the left and bring your whole arm across your body until the sword is in a good parry position. This sometimes both looks and feels more fluid than a regularly executed 4 parry.
  5. Bring your sword to the right side of your body, placing the blade down at approximately a 45° angle, again making this parry comfortably away from your body.
  6. Here comes the difficult one: parrying a thrust. As opposed to the other five, which is merely positioning a block, the parry of a thrust involves a movement, some of which can be very interesting/fun. Remember, though, that safety is a primary concern with thrust, because they can be very tricky (am I running safety into the ground yet? GOOD!). With a broadsword thrust, which should usually be the standard torso-as-target variety, a good swinging contact with the attacking sword to knock it out of its line of attack and AWAY from you is usually the best and most effective thing. The direction of this parrying swing is really dependant on the situation at hand: what would be the most natural, what attack from who occurs next, etc. The tricky part comes with blocking rapier thrust, as there are more of them and they often come towards more than one target (6a, 6b, 6c). The whack-away method is also effective here, bound by the directional conditions previously stated for broadsword.

However, with the rapier, there are more varieties available, which for our purposes I'll call spin parries (simply because that's what I call them…). I'm sure you've all seen this move or several like it in the movies: the attacker thrust, and rather than just bashing his sword away, the defender 'takes it on his blade', 'spins' his own around it, and flicks it way. This can be as simple as a single spin-and-flick, or can be a series of circular (meaning spinning the sword in a full circle, i.e. a prolonged spin) parry whose purpose is to disarm the attacker. If you practice this basic move once or twice, you will see what it is I mean. These look very good, are fun to do, and many interesting moves can spring from them.

Do I parry with the edge or flat? (A short digression)
This is indeed a difficult question, with no easy answer. There is a great debate going on in the stage combat world right now, and even involving outside groups of historical martial artists, over whether parries were historically carried out with the flat or the edge, and which of these methods stage combat should employ. Rapiers are not so much the issue, as due to their nature they don't (nor did) have much of an edge to speak of. The question really comes to the forefront with broadswords, however. In almost every stage fight, television show, and movie ever made the swordsmen smack their weapons edge to edge consistently. This was not the period practice, I assure you: The most common means to not get hit with a sword were either to block it with your shield or simply get out of the way (this was called voiding). When parries were done with a sword, if at all possible the attacker's blow was caught on the flat of the blade. Edge to edge contact was far too damaging to the weapon to make that a common practice; a sword isn't much good if its edge looks like a saw, which is what happens to a real sword when it is used to parry edge to edge.

HOWEVER, I feel that for the beginning stage combatant in the ideal circumstances (i.e. if the proper weapons are available) the practice of parrying with the edge is the best solution to the problem. Most stage combat has always been done, and (admittedly sadly) will probably always be done in this manner. This is because the needs, concerns, and limitations of theatrical production take precedence over historical authenticity in stage combat. There are exceptions, however. If a fight is to be done with 'real' (i.e. with a sharp edged) weapons they should NOT be used edge to edge, as this will quickly destroy the weapons; use the flat to parry instead. As a matter of fact, these weapons shouldn't be used AT ALL until the combatant has a bit of experience under his or her belt. However, if weapons designed for stage combat (i.e. with blunt, rounded or flat edges) are to be used then edge to edge contact is ok, and even (in my opinion) recommended.

Back to the business at hand…
To 'come up' with a fight is not an easy thing. Or, it IS an easy thing. It depends on the level of desired complexity, in reference to both movement and reflection of plot and character. If YOU are the writing/directing the fight, I'd suggest doing your research, watching some movies, and practicing. Then get a partner, and with the entire play in mind, start 'playing around'. There is no better way to put it to the beginner than this. Use the script as a guide. How does this fight start? How would the characters start the fight? Is the fight between equals in terms of size and skill (if not, the fight should indeed reflect this)? Begin by sparring a little, and if these moves seem to work, write them down. If you get on a roll, go with it. If not, change what you don't like, or throw the whole thing out.

Another thing to remember is that a lot of straight swordplay is not only pretty boring to the average audience, but can be hard to remember. To spice things up, you have to put in what I call 'gimmick moves.' These are actions separate from actual sword-to-sword contact.For example:

Fighter A attacks with a 1,2,3. On the 3, fighter 2 is disarmed (i.e. the sword was 'knocked' out of his hand). Fighter A raises his sword over his head to deliver the coup d'grace in the form of a 1, but as his arms are raised fighter 2 tackles him around the waist. Now both fighters are on the ground.

Little things like this are what makes a fight exciting and unpredictable, and can keep an audience on the edge of its seat. It can help create a lot of situations that can lead to interesting sections of the fight: chairs over the back, punches, kicks, etc. Professional wrestling is a great place to get ideas for this sort of thing. Remember that it is variety and fluidity that makes a fight exciting. All you need is a good imagination and a safe execution of your ideas. Just keep in mind that the fight needs to start, happen, and end in a manner consistent with the script.

From the beginning I would suggest that the fight be written out in words by recording sword hits with the numbers described above, and other moves in a verbal description. The description and numbers used for notation are not the fight, however, and you will not have to always remember them during the fight. It is merely a rudimentary way of getting the movements down on paper. After you have gotten the fight into your head, and practiced it over and over, the numbers will disappear. Instead of thinking "5, 3, 2" you'll be thinking 'over HERE and then over HERE and over HERE.' That is, if you think at all; if you practice it enough, which you should, the entire fight will become almost involuntary motion. Which brings us to our next point.

After the fight has been created, it is up to the combatants to give it life. The first step is to teach the combatants the rudimentary moves and safety precautions of stage combat in general, if they are not already familiar with them. Afterwards, they begin to learn the fight by going slowly over the written copy of the fight and committing the moves (not the numbers) to memory. This can be a very slow process, especially the first time, so be patient. It is often best to have an extra person reading off the moves to the combatants, so that they will not be constantly having to stop and look at the written fight.

After the fighters have the fight in their heads, they should begin going through it very slowly. Rehearse it some more. Then more. Then pick up speed. Then rehearse it at that speed, and then more. Then pick up the speed a little more, then rehearse again and again. By the time the combatants are up to full speed, they should know the fight very well. If not, then they need to slow down and rehearse it some more. When they are up to full speed, they should rehearse it again and again. The fight should be so ingrained and natural that it is almost reflex. There is really no other way to put this. It may seem to get boring, but lots of rehearsal is the key to a safe, fluid, good-looking fight. It's an investment in time.

From the very beginning of the process, be sure to have the actual weapons that will be used in the performance, so that the combatant can familiarize himself with the balance and behavior of his weapon. It is also a very good idea to have any other props or costumes that could become a factor in the safety or proper execution of the fight. Examples are: footwear, swordbelts, hats, pouches, etc.

A note on armour
Armour can add a great deal to a stage production. There are really two types of armour for the theatre: decorative and functional. Decorative armour is armour that can not function as an actual protective piece, e.g. cloth chainmail, tin, leather, light steel, plastic, etc. This does not mean that it can't or shouldn't be worn in a fight, just that it should not be relied upon as a means of protection in that fight. Functional armour is armour of materials appropriate to actually providing an effective degree of protection from weapons, e.g.. iron or steel plate or chainmail. If there is any question about a piece, put it into the 'decorative' category. If armour of either type is to be worn in a fight, have the combatants begin rehearsing with it as soon as possible, so that they can get used to it and any problems that may arise from its use can be discovered early in the process.

If one has access to armour, it is very tempting to use it for its intended purpose: protecting the body from a sword blow. It is ever so tempting to choreograph a fight in which several harsh blows land on the armour of a combatant. This indeed can be done with extreme care under certain conditions. Armour of the decorative type should NOT be used as targets for 'killing' blows, or in any other protective means. Functional chainmail armour is also not very good for absorbing blows, but will protect against a drawcut (a cut in which the blade is placed against the target and pulled). Only against plate armour of sufficient gauge steel (16 or better) should blows be solidly directed against an opponent, and then with EXTREME care as to being precise in the target area. Appropriate padding should also be worn under the armour for this to happen. Wearing a suit of battle-worthy plate armour, which can be in excess of 80 lbs., is a very tiring experience especially if it is for the entire length of a play. Take this into account when deciding to use armour. Not to mention the cost of such a piece….

The Performance
After weeks of practice and time, opening day finally arrives. Whether it's only one performance or a year's worth of them, the process is still the same. Call is the time that all performers are to be at the performance area. All performers directly involved in any of the combat should be at a fight call which should take place at least 30 minutes before cast call. During this time the fights should be rehearsed IN THE PERFORMANCE AREA once at half speed then once at full speed. Any glitches should be ironed out and the sequence ran through again.

You are in the middle of a live performance and either you or your partner messes up, or forgets the next move. Don't panic! The audience doesn't know what's supposed to happen next. The worst thing you can do is to start flailing with your weapon wildly; not only is it unsafe, it looks terrible! When one of you has messed up, the other will immediately be aware of it. The thing to do is: stop aggression, and begin the 'stalk your prey' shuffling of your feet, maybe even circling one another if the space allows. Your opponent will do the same. While you're doing this, THINK! Your opponent will be doing the same. One or the other of you will either remember the next move or move on to a part of the fight that they DO remember. You can communicate this through a look. When one of you comes to your senses, begin the remembered attack with a big prep. Your opponent should pick up on it, and take it from there. No problem. If your opponent doesn't get 'back into the groove', then back away and start the process again. If you have rehearsed the fight enough, you will be able to pick RIGHT back up, because you'll know the fight and know each other. Don't panic, just look mean. Trust me, it works. When it happens to you, you'll understand.

BIG Oops....
Sometime or another, a mistake could be made and someone gets hit too hard or starts bleeding. When this happens, the fight is OVER. Cover it somehow (there's that acting thing again), and get them off the stage. Check them out. If they're ok, the show will go on. If they are hurt badly enough that they can't, immediately tell the director or stage manager. Odds are they'll be standing right there anyway.

And if you are the one who delivered the wounding blow, you are probably going to feel terrible about it. If it was actually your intention to harm your partner, then you SHOULD feel very terrible. Otherwise, it was an accident. Don't keep kicking yourself over it, just find out what went wrong, learn from that mistake, and tell your partner your sorry.

Stage Blood recipe
Oh boy, you're using blood. The best mixture I've found for washout-ability, cost effectiveness, appearance, and tasty goodness is Karo Corn Syrup with red food dye. Not only is it easily available and can be ingested, it's easy to work with. Want a little blood packet to hide in your hand till the appropriate moment? Mix up some blood (color to preference), poor it into the corner of a thin sandwich bag, tie it off, cut off excess (pack should be no bigger than a golf ball), and at the appropriate moment squeeze and smear!

Pointers for learning/improving

  • The next time you watch a good play or movie, examine the fights more closely; it can be rewarding to study them and learn from them how to do effective fights. Some questions to ask are: Does the choreography fit well into the overall 'feel' of the production? Is characterization /interaction apparent during the fight(s), and is it consistent with the characterization /interaction in the rest of the production? Does the choreography move the story forward, or does it have an 'insert fight here and then get on with the plot' feel? What is the overall level of realism in the fight? Of fantasy? Has too much of one or the other detracted from overall effectiveness?
  • Watching movies WON'T teach you real swordsmanship, but it can help you learn and improve you stage combat abilities.
  • Professional wrestling is the BEST source for unarmed combat moves. Don't laugh.
  • READ all you can on anything remotely related to the subject.
  • If at all possible, get in touch with certified instructors and take some lessons, even get certified!


    Books: These are not ALL of them, just the best.
    • Stage Combat by William Hobbes.
      Undoubtedly the best book for the beginner, written by one of, if not THE, best fight choreographers ever.
    • Combat Mime by J.D. Martinez.
      A very good book for unarmed stage combat.
    • Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight by David Edge and Miles Paddock.
      The best single-volume resource for information on armour. Swords and Hilt Weapons. A compendium focusing on the types and uses of swords through history and throughout the world.
    • Methods and Practice of Elizabethan Swordplay by Craig Turner and Tony Soper.
      A great book for stage combatants focusing on the Shakespearean era.
    • Actors on Guard by Dale Anthony Girard.
      The very best in-depth book on stage combat. Period. Renaissance Swordsmanship and Medieval Swordsmanship by John Clements. The best books available on actual period fighting techniques.
    • Starfire Swords Ltd.
      P.O. Box 74
      Spencer, NY 14883
      (607) 589 - 7244
      Starfire Webpage
      Starfire's swords are not exact copies of period pieces, but they are EXTREMELY durable in stage combat situations, and have an unconditional lifetime guarantee.
    • American Fencers: The Armoury
      1180 Folsom Street
      San Francisco, CA 94103
      (415) 863-7911
      American Fencers Webpage
      Their broadswords are a little more realistic than Starfire's but not as durable. Their rapier stage combat weapons are the industry standard.
    • Forte Stage Combat
      1575 Stonehill Court
      Wheaton, IL 60187
      (630) 653-1101
      Forte Stage Combat Webpage
      An excellent source for renting weapons, armour, and accessories. They also have choreography services available.
    • Darkwood Armoury
      5514 Frank Hough Rd.
      Panama City, FL 32404
      (850) 872-1873
      Darkwood Webpage
      Another great supplier; they make their own hilts too.
    On-line Resources
    • The Society of American Fight Directors (S.A.F.D)
      SAFD Website
      A regualatory/testing group very dedicated to safe and effective stage combat.
      Considered the standard authorizing group for stage combat.
    • Ring of Steel
      Ring of Steel
      The best page of stage combat links on the net. Articles, weapons, groups, choreographers, you name it they probably have a link to it.
    • The Blackfriar's Journal
      Blackfriar's Journal
      An on-line journal of stage combat. Very informative articles.
    • Historical Armed Combat Association (HACA)
      The best site on the net for studying historical swordsmanship. They have tons
      of links, articles, pictures, etc.

    A sample fight

      I have included a very basic sample fight as a way of showing the basis of clear notation. It may take a little while to decipher, but once you get it all will become very clear. The fight was orginally written for two armoured combatants with broadswords near a fence. "hit 2" means that the defender does not parry, but that the attacker hits the defender in that area. If no armour is being worn then these blows should be pulled. It is up to the person getting 'hit' to sell the received blow as a painful one; it's not up to the attacker to convince the defender of it. G= good guy, B= bad guy. Each line represents a moment in the fight, and describes each persons actions in that moment.

Hit B in gut with mop
Lose sword
Doubled over
Go over fence
Punch B in face
Climb to top of fence
Kick B in face
Body drop from fence
Get sword back
3,1, lose sword
take hit
Go down on knee
Grab sword
Flip B over head
Hold on to sword
begin 1
kick G in stomach
take G, ram head into fence
throw G over fence
B loses sword
Try to stop G
Go down
Roll away
Get sword back
Spin disarm on G's 1
hit 2
hit 5
Puts sword to G's throat behind
Go over G's head
Hit ground

    G put's sword to B's throat, B yields.

I know that's a lot to absorb in one sitting, but therein lie the basics of stage combat for the unknowing and untaught. If you enjoy it, do as much of it as you can, and learn from as many different sources as you can. If you have any questions concerning anything, PLEASE feel free to email me at

To sum up:
In order of importance, a fight must be:

  1. SAFE
  2. Within the proper context of the play as the director envisions it.
  3. Exciting
  4. Fluid and effective
  5. Easily repeatable
  6. Fun

Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse!!!!!

Only use appropriate weapons

Have fun, share what you have learned, and always try to learn more.

© 1998, Winston Glen Kyle
Not to be copied in whole or part without permission.
Just ask, and I'll probably give it.

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