Stage combat, in simplest terms, is pretending to fight for the benefit of an
audience. Almost everyone in the United States has seen it in one form or
another: on stage, on television, at the movies. It can range from a single
punch to a full-scale 'battle' between armies of hundreds of actor/combatants.
This essay will attempt to describe and explain, for the absolute beginner, what
stage combat is, isn't, and the very basics of putting together a choreographed
swordfight. HOWEVER, if one has access nearby to any workshops or experienced
teachers/combatants, it is best to learn firsthand from them in a controlled,
safe environment. I have written this for the benefit of those who don't have
immediate access to such resources, as was my case when growing up. It is also
written somewhat simultaneously from choreographer AND combatant standpoints, as
this could often be the same person. I learned the hard way, self taught to a
degree, and started out being both choreographer AND combatant because there
simply wasn't anyone else. I want to share my experiences with those of you who
are in the same situation I was in my younger days: wanting to learn and not
knowing where or how. There's no point in re-inventing the wheel. I do hope,
however, that it might prove to be a handy tool for those who may already have a
little experience. And remember, these are all my opinions based on personal
experience. If you like it, great; If you disagree, congratulations! You are a
free-thinking individual. I just hope to help everybody out as much as possible.
Oh, and so I don't get sued, I guess I'd better say: Neither I (Glen Kyle) nor
any publisher of this paper assumes nor will assume any responsibility for any
injury or damage that may occur from putting into practice the ideas and actions
described in this work, nor will we be responsible for injury or damage from
practicing or performing stage combat in general; do so at your own risk. At the
end of the essay, I've also included a list of sources (people, paper, and
on-line) that may come in handy for research and equipment. I'm leaving it up to
the reader to check historical sources on weapons, armour, usage, and actual
combat. This can be done at most local libraries.
Stage combat IS
First, what stage combat is. As I said before, it is pretending to fight for an
audience. We've all roughhoused, playing around to impress friends and family,
but this isn't quite what I speak of. Stage combat is a series of PRE-PLANNED,
SAFELY executed moves. That is to say, there should be no changes, no surprises,
and no extemporaneous blows thrown in. The purpose of stage combat is and MUST
be to artistically and effectively serve the overall goal of the production of
which it is a part. Just 'making something up' to cover the stage direction
"they fight" will make for a poor performance indeed, and could ruin the entire
aura of the show; if a fight is present it is often the climax of the entire
story. The best example I know of how it SHOULD be done is in the movie Rob Roy
starring Liam Neeson and Tim Roth. The duel between the two at the end of the
movie (fight director: William Hobbes) is so much more than swords swinging: the
attitudes conveyed, the fighting styles, even the individual moves help to
define not only their characters, but their interaction throughout the course of
the entire movie. Conversely, it is also usually a bad idea to create a couple
of fights and build a plot around them, no matter how nice the fights are. If
you are a diehard fan of swashbuckling (I know I am!) you could probably watch
just swordfighting all day long and be perfectly happy. However, most audience
members are not of that vein, and can quickly grow tired of 'whack whack whack'
with little else to round it out. Stage combat is not a means unto itself, but
holds a very important place in the performance world. It is only one of the
myriad of special skill that come together to produce a quality production. The
fight must be given neither too small of a role nor too much of one. And of
course, one of the most important things for a fight to be is exciting and
entertaining to watch.
Stage combat IS NOT
And there are some things that stage combat is NOT. Stage combat is not a
martial art, it is not a means of self-defense, and it is not meant to portray
actual combat. In a martial art, or actual combat, the key is to learn and use
skills that will allow you to hurt/disable /kill your opponent as quickly as
possible. The exact opposite is the aim of stage combat: to NOT hurt your
opponent at all. Therefore, the methods used in stage combat are theoretically
non-violent, and should NOT be considered a means of self-defense. And stage
combat should not be considered to represent the way actual combat is/would have
been: it usually doesn't, but it very well could (depending on the
choreographer). An example of a great stage fight that is not in the least bit
realistic is the duel between Inigo and Westly in The Princess Bride (fight
director: Bob Anderson). An example of realistic combat in the movies (if not
THE example) is Saving Private Ryan. Granted, this was on a VERY large scale.
Why then is it so uncommon for a choreographed fight on stage and screen to be
Unrealistic? Because in reality, fights were/are usually over very quick. It is
obviously not very entertaining to have the climatic fight in an epic story
between a hero and a villain last 10 seconds. So we have to beef it up a little
to make it entertaining and to help move the story along at a more exciting
On a similar note, it should be pointed out that some historical
recreation/re-enactment groups (SCA, Dagorhir, Markland, etc) have fights
between members using padded weapons (boffers), wooden sticks, etc. This is also
not stage combat, because it is all completely unplanned. The fights in these
groups are actual contests based on skill and force within a framework of rules.
This allows safe, unchoreographed, if not altogether realistic, fights. Other
groups exist solely study historical combat, the foremost of which is the
Historical Armed Combat Association (HACA). This is also not stage combat, but
the actual study of practical swordsmanship. Though completely different than
stage combat, I feel that examining the practices of these groups can allow
stage combatants to pick up pointers to make their fights more effective, and
also help choreographers make their fights more realistic.
LET'S GET READY TO RUMBLE!
Now onto the meat of the matter: How to create, practice and perform a stage
How to come up with a fight? Good question, one that choreographers constantly
have to ask, just as they are constantly having to re-invent the answer. The
most important aspect to remember is SAFETY, throughout the entire process.
Don't go faster than you are comfortable with, follow the choreography, don't be
over-zealous. Remember: the other guy isn't ACTUALLY trying to kill you, despite
the bloodlust in his eyes (that's acting). You are two (or more) combatants who
are trying to put on a good show. Don't panic, and remember that we're all on
the same side.
As I said before, this paper will focus on giving the very basics of sword
combat for the stage. If you want to throw in a kick or punch somewhere,
remember: don't actually hit the other guy. Also, I won't cover 'selling the
fight' here; it involves acting. All I'll say is: grunt and scream a lot.
There are in general two types of swordfights in plays: Those using rapiers and
those using broadswords (a Victorian mislabeling; the true classification is
medieval war sword. However, most stage combat refers to them as broadswords, so
for this particular venue so will I, simply because it's easier to type. You'll
need to do a little research on the different types of swords.
Now that you know what a rapier or broadsword is (if you didn't already) you
will choose what type to use for the fight. This depends on the setting and
director's vision of the production. Picking out stage combat weapons can be
very tricky indeed. There are some definite do's and don'ts involved. For the
sake of safety of both you and your audience, don't use any weapons unless they
come from the suppliers listed at the end of this essay, unless they have been
inspected and approved by an experienced stage combatant. Many of the swords
available today were meant to be decorative wallhangers, and having stainless
steel blades can not and will not stand up to the rigors of stage combat. Also,
if you are unsure about what to get, I would suggest renting weapons rather than
buying them, at least in the beginning. This allows you to try different kinds
out for yourself without committing to what can be a very expensive investment.
For the very basics, I'm going to oversimplify and say that stage fights between
rapier and broadsword can be very similar, the main difference being you will be
performing more cutting moves with the broadsword and more thrusting moves with
the rapier. Because of this and the weight difference in these weapons, rapier
fights will tend to be more fast-paced and athletic, whereas broadsword fights
are somewhat slower and better for 'armoured juggernaut' type fights. The key is
to create an exciting fight that can be repeatedly carried out safely. To do
this, the fight must be divided into separate moves that can be recorded on
paper. I have divided sword blows into 6 basic moves. Below is an illustration
and a description illustrating the different blows. It is given from the point
of view as though you are the attacker looking at your opponent.
Attacks **GUY WITH 6 HITS**
1 This is a basic overhead swing, perpendicular to the ground, whose virtual
target should be the top of your opponent's head. You should swing as though
your intent was to cleave the person right down the middle. However, don't do
this. Apart from a 6, this is probably the most dangerous.
2 This is a cut parallel to the ground at your opponent's left shoulder.
3 This is a cut parallel to the ground at your opponent's right shoulder.
4 This is cut to the opponent's left leg. While swinging parallel to the
ground is not practical with this move, it should still be done along clean
lines, with your weapon pointed down at approximately a 45° angle, maintaining
this angle as much as possible throughout the swing.
5 This is a cut to the opponent's right leg. See 4 for attack lines.
6 This is a thrust to the opponent's torso. This is the most dangerous move,
and extreme care should be taken in executing any thrust. As thrusts are more
predominant in rapier fighting, this thrust can be divided into three parts:
6a (thrust to the head BE VERY CAREFUL!), 6b (thrust to the torso) and 6c
(thrust to the legs). If it makes it easier for you, simply make 6 = 6, 7, and
Again, you are NOT trying to defeat your opponent, and they are NOT trying to
kill you. Swinging full force (or even close to it) is not only unsafe but also
completely unnecessary. Control and precision are necessary between the
combatants; the level of force and intensity depends on them portraying it to be
so, not actually making it so. That's that acting thing again. This is not
saying that you should be wimpy about it either. If one of you thinks the other
is hitting to hard, then you probably are. Let your opponent know so.
How to parry these?
All parries/block should be just as crisp as the attacks. The blades should make
a nice perpendicular X every time they meet. A parry isn't so much a swing to
meet the incoming attack, but a static positioning of your sword to meet the
attack (this does not apply to thrusting attacks). These instructions are
assuming your opponent is making the attacks, and the numbers represent the
attacks he is making. Refer to the dashed swords in the illustration for ideal
sword placement for a parry to that area.
Bring your sword well above the level of your head, having it run parallel
to the ground and perpendicular to the swing of the attacker.
Bring your sword to the left side of your body, with the sword a comfortable
distance away from you body (but don't overstretch it). The sword should be
perpendicular to the ground and completely vertical (pommel down, point up).
Try to place it so that the center of the blade is at the level of your
shoulder, so that you will have the maximum chance of safely intercepting the
Bring your sword to the right side of your body, using the techniques
discussed in 2.
Bring your sword to the left side of your body, placing the blade down at
approximately a 45° angle. As in two above make this parry comfortably away
from your body, but do not overextend. With a rapier this move can be made
somewhat differently, allowing for the easy maneuverability of the lighter
blade. Have the sword in your hand, pointing straight out. Then point the
sword down to the ground. Finally, rotate your arm at the elbow to the left
and bring your whole arm across your body until the sword is in a good parry
position. This sometimes both looks and feels more fluid than a regularly
executed 4 parry.
Bring your sword to the right side of your body, placing the blade down at
approximately a 45° angle, again making this parry comfortably away from your
Here comes the difficult one: parrying a thrust. As opposed to the other
five, which is merely positioning a block, the parry of a thrust involves a
movement, some of which can be very interesting/fun. Remember, though, that
safety is a primary concern with thrust, because they can be very tricky (am I
running safety into the ground yet? GOOD!). With a broadsword thrust, which
should usually be the standard torso-as-target variety, a good swinging
contact with the attacking sword to knock it out of its line of attack and
AWAY from you is usually the best and most effective thing. The direction of
this parrying swing is really dependant on the situation at hand: what would
be the most natural, what attack from who occurs next, etc. The tricky part
comes with blocking rapier thrust, as there are more of them and they often
come towards more than one target (6a, 6b, 6c). The whack-away method is also
effective here, bound by the directional conditions previously stated for
However, with the rapier, there are more varieties available, which for our
purposes I'll call spin parries (simply because that's what I call them…). I'm
sure you've all seen this move or several like it in the movies: the attacker
thrust, and rather than just bashing his sword away, the defender 'takes it on
his blade', 'spins' his own around it, and flicks it way. This can be as simple
as a single spin-and-flick, or can be a series of circular (meaning spinning the
sword in a full circle, i.e. a prolonged spin) parry whose purpose is to disarm
the attacker. If you practice this basic move once or twice, you will see what
it is I mean. These look very good, are fun to do, and many interesting moves
can spring from them.
Do I parry with the edge or flat? (A short digression)
This is indeed a difficult question, with no easy answer. There is a great
debate going on in the stage combat world right now, and even involving outside
groups of historical martial artists, over whether parries were historically
carried out with the flat or the edge, and which of these methods stage combat
should employ. Rapiers are not so much the issue, as due to their nature they
don't (nor did) have much of an edge to speak of. The question really comes to
the forefront with broadswords, however. In almost every stage fight, television
show, and movie ever made the swordsmen smack their weapons edge to edge
consistently. This was not the period practice, I assure you: The most common
means to not get hit with a sword were either to block it with your shield or
simply get out of the way (this was called voiding). When parries were done with
a sword, if at all possible the attacker's blow was caught on the flat of the
blade. Edge to edge contact was far too damaging to the weapon to make that a
common practice; a sword isn't much good if its edge looks like a saw, which is
what happens to a real sword when it is used to parry edge to edge.
HOWEVER, I feel that for the beginning stage combatant in the ideal
circumstances (i.e. if the proper weapons are available) the practice of
parrying with the edge is the best solution to the problem. Most stage combat
has always been done, and (admittedly sadly) will probably always be done in
this manner. This is because the needs, concerns, and limitations of theatrical
production take precedence over historical authenticity in stage combat. There
are exceptions, however. If a fight is to be done with 'real' (i.e. with a sharp
edged) weapons they should NOT be used edge to edge, as this will quickly
destroy the weapons; use the flat to parry instead. As a matter of fact, these
weapons shouldn't be used AT ALL until the combatant has a bit of experience
under his or her belt. However, if weapons designed for stage combat
(i.e. with blunt, rounded or flat edges) are to be used then edge to edge
contact is ok, and even (in my opinion) recommended.
Back to the business at hand…
To 'come up' with a fight is not an easy thing. Or, it IS an easy thing. It
depends on the level of desired complexity, in reference to both movement and
reflection of plot and character. If YOU are the writing/directing the fight,
I'd suggest doing your research, watching some movies, and practicing. Then get
a partner, and with the entire play in mind, start 'playing around'. There is no
better way to put it to the beginner than this. Use the script as a guide. How
does this fight start? How would the characters start the fight? Is the fight
between equals in terms of size and skill (if not, the fight should indeed
reflect this)? Begin by sparring a little, and if these moves seem to work,
write them down. If you get on a roll, go with it. If not, change what you don't
like, or throw the whole thing out.
Another thing to remember is that a lot of straight swordplay is not only pretty
boring to the average audience, but can be hard to remember. To spice things up,
you have to put in what I call 'gimmick moves.' These are actions separate from
actual sword-to-sword contact.
Fighter A attacks with a 1,2,3. On the 3, fighter 2 is disarmed (i.e. the sword
was 'knocked' out of his hand). Fighter A raises his sword over his head to
deliver the coup d'grace in the form of a 1, but as his arms are raised fighter
2 tackles him around the waist. Now both fighters are on the ground.
Little things like this are what makes a fight exciting and unpredictable, and
can keep an audience on the edge of its seat. It can help create a lot of
situations that can lead to interesting sections of the fight: chairs over the
back, punches, kicks, etc. Professional wrestling is a great place to get ideas
for this sort of thing. Remember that it is variety and fluidity that makes a
fight exciting. All you need is a good imagination and a safe execution of your
ideas. Just keep in mind that the fight needs to start, happen, and end in a
manner consistent with the script.
From the beginning I would suggest that the fight be written out in words by
recording sword hits with the numbers described above, and other moves in a
verbal description. The description and numbers used for notation are not the
fight, however, and you will not have to always remember them during the fight.
It is merely a rudimentary way of getting the movements down on paper. After you
have gotten the fight into your head, and practiced it over and over, the
numbers will disappear. Instead of thinking "5, 3, 2" you'll be thinking 'over
HERE and then over HERE and over HERE.' That is, if you think at all; if you
practice it enough, which you should, the entire fight will become almost
involuntary motion. Which brings us to our next point.
After the fight has been created, it is up to the combatants to give it life.
The first step is to teach the combatants the rudimentary moves and safety
precautions of stage combat in general, if they are not already familiar with
them. Afterwards, they begin to learn the fight by going slowly over the written
copy of the fight and committing the moves (not the numbers) to memory. This can
be a very slow process, especially the first time, so be patient. It is often
best to have an extra person reading off the moves to the combatants, so that
they will not be constantly having to stop and look at the written fight.
After the fighters have the fight in their heads, they should begin going
through it very slowly. Rehearse it some more. Then more. Then pick up speed.
Then rehearse it at that speed, and then more. Then pick up the speed a little
more, then rehearse again and again. By the time the combatants are up to full
speed, they should know the fight very well. If not, then they need to slow down
and rehearse it some more. When they are up to full speed, they should rehearse
it again and again. The fight should be so ingrained and natural that it is
almost reflex. There is really no other way to put this. It may seem to get
boring, but lots of rehearsal is the key to a safe, fluid, good-looking fight.
It's an investment in time.
From the very beginning of the process, be sure to have the actual weapons that
will be used in the performance, so that the combatant can familiarize himself
with the balance and behavior of his weapon. It is also a very good idea to have
any other props or costumes that could become a factor in the safety or proper
execution of the fight. Examples are: footwear, swordbelts, hats, pouches, etc.
A note on armour
Armour can add a great deal to a stage production. There are really two types of
armour for the theatre: decorative and functional. Decorative armour is armour
that can not function as an actual protective piece, e.g. cloth chainmail, tin,
leather, light steel, plastic, etc. This does not mean that it can't or
shouldn't be worn in a fight, just that it should not be relied upon as a means
of protection in that fight. Functional armour is armour of materials
appropriate to actually providing an effective degree of protection from
weapons, e.g.. iron or steel plate or chainmail. If there is any question about
a piece, put it into the 'decorative' category. If armour of either type is to
be worn in a fight, have the combatants begin rehearsing with it as soon as
possible, so that they can get used to it and any problems that may arise from
its use can be discovered early in the process.
If one has access to armour, it is very tempting to use it for its intended
purpose: protecting the body from a sword blow. It is ever so tempting to
choreograph a fight in which several harsh blows land on the armour of a
combatant. This indeed can be done with extreme care under certain conditions.
Armour of the decorative type should NOT be used as targets for 'killing' blows,
or in any other protective means. Functional chainmail armour is also not very
good for absorbing blows, but will protect against a drawcut (a cut in which the
blade is placed against the target and pulled). Only against plate armour of
sufficient gauge steel (16 or better) should blows be solidly directed against
an opponent, and then with EXTREME care as to being precise in the target area.
Appropriate padding should also be worn under the armour for this to happen.
Wearing a suit of battle-worthy plate armour, which can be in excess of 80 lbs.,
is a very tiring experience especially if it is for the entire length of a play.
Take this into account when deciding to use armour. Not to mention the cost of
such a piece….
After weeks of practice and time, opening day finally arrives. Whether it's only
one performance or a year's worth of them, the process is still the same. Call
is the time that all performers are to be at the performance area. All
performers directly involved in any of the combat should be at a fight call
which should take place at least 30 minutes before cast call. During this time
the fights should be rehearsed IN THE PERFORMANCE AREA once at half speed then
once at full speed. Any glitches should be ironed out and the sequence ran
You are in the middle of a live performance and either you or your partner
messes up, or forgets the next move. Don't panic! The audience doesn't know
what's supposed to happen next. The worst thing you can do is to start flailing
with your weapon wildly; not only is it unsafe, it looks terrible! When one of
you has messed up, the other will immediately be aware of it. The thing to do
is: stop aggression, and begin the 'stalk your prey' shuffling of your feet,
maybe even circling one another if the space allows. Your opponent will do the
same. While you're doing this, THINK! Your opponent will be doing the same. One
or the other of you will either remember the next move or move on to a part of
the fight that they DO remember. You can communicate this through a look. When
one of you comes to your senses, begin the remembered attack with a big prep.
Your opponent should pick up on it, and take it from there. No problem. If your
opponent doesn't get 'back into the groove', then back away and start the
process again. If you have rehearsed the fight enough, you will be able to pick
RIGHT back up, because you'll know the fight and know each other. Don't panic,
just look mean. Trust me, it works. When it happens to you, you'll understand.
Sometime or another, a mistake could be made and someone gets hit too hard or
starts bleeding. When this happens, the fight is OVER. Cover it somehow (there's
that acting thing again), and get them off the stage. Check them out. If they're
ok, the show will go on. If they are hurt badly enough that they can't,
immediately tell the director or stage manager. Odds are they'll be standing
right there anyway.
And if you are the one who delivered the wounding blow, you are probably going
to feel terrible about it. If it was actually your intention to harm your
partner, then you SHOULD feel very terrible. Otherwise, it was an accident.
Don't keep kicking yourself over it, just find out what went wrong, learn from
that mistake, and tell your partner your sorry.
Stage Blood recipe
Oh boy, you're using blood. The best mixture I've found for washout-ability,
cost effectiveness, appearance, and tasty goodness is Karo Corn Syrup with red
food dye. Not only is it easily available and can be ingested, it's easy to work
with. Want a little blood packet to hide in your hand till the appropriate
moment? Mix up some blood (color to preference), poor it into the corner of a
thin sandwich bag, tie it off, cut off excess (pack should be no bigger than a
golf ball), and at the appropriate moment squeeze and smear!
Pointers for learning/improving
The next time you watch a good play or movie, examine the fights more closely;
it can be rewarding to study them and learn from them how to do effective
fights. Some questions to ask are: Does the choreography fit well into the
overall 'feel' of the production? Is characterization /interaction apparent
during the fight(s), and is it consistent with the characterization /interaction
in the rest of the production? Does the choreography move the story forward, or
does it have an 'insert fight here and then get on with the plot' feel? What is
the overall level of realism in the fight? Of fantasy? Has too much of one or
the other detracted from overall effectiveness?
Watching movies WON'T teach you real swordsmanship, but it can help you learn
and improve you stage combat abilities.
Professional wrestling is the BEST source for unarmed combat moves. Don't
READ all you can on anything remotely related to the subject.
If at all possible, get in touch with certified instructors and take some
lessons, even get certified!
Books: These are not ALL of them, just the best.
Stage Combat by William Hobbes.
Undoubtedly the best book for the beginner, written by one of, if not THE, best
fight choreographers ever.
Combat Mime by J.D. Martinez.
A very good book for unarmed stage combat.
Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight by David Edge and Miles Paddock.
The best single-volume resource for information on armour. Swords and Hilt
Weapons. A compendium focusing on the types and uses of swords through history
and throughout the world.
Methods and Practice of Elizabethan Swordplay by Craig Turner and Tony Soper.
A great book for stage combatants focusing on the Shakespearean era.
Actors on Guard by Dale Anthony Girard.
The very best in-depth book on stage combat. Period. Renaissance Swordsmanship
and Medieval Swordsmanship by John Clements. The best books available on actual
period fighting techniques.
Starfire Swords Ltd.
P.O. Box 74
Spencer, NY 14883
(607) 589 - 7244
Starfire Webpage Starfire's swords are not exact copies of period pieces, but they are EXTREMELY
durable in stage combat situations, and have an unconditional lifetime
American Fencers: The Armoury
1180 Folsom Street
San Francisco, CA 94103
American Fencers Webpage Their broadswords are a little more realistic than Starfire's but not as
durable. Their rapier stage combat weapons are the industry standard.
Forte Stage Combat
1575 Stonehill Court
Wheaton, IL 60187
Forte Stage Combat Webpage An excellent source for renting weapons, armour, and accessories. They also have
choreography services available.
5514 Frank Hough Rd.
Panama City, FL 32404
Darkwood Webpage Another great supplier; they make their own hilts too.
The Society of American Fight Directors (S.A.F.D)
SAFD Website A regualatory/testing group very dedicated to safe and effective stage combat.
Considered the standard authorizing group for stage combat.
Ring of Steel
Ring of Steel The best page of stage combat links on the net. Articles, weapons,
groups, choreographers, you name it they probably have a link to it.
The Blackfriar's Journal
Blackfriar's Journal An on-line journal of stage combat. Very informative articles.
Historical Armed Combat Association (HACA)
HACA The best site on the net for studying historical swordsmanship. They have tons
of links, articles, pictures, etc.
A sample fight
I have included a very basic sample fight as a way of showing the basis of clear
notation. It may take a little while to decipher, but once you get it all will
become very clear. The fight was orginally written for two armoured combatants
with broadswords near a fence. "hit 2" means that the defender does not parry,
but that the attacker hits the defender in that area. If no armour is being worn
then these blows should be pulled. It is up to the person getting 'hit' to sell
the received blow as a painful one; it's not up to the attacker to convince the
defender of it. G= good guy, B= bad guy. Each line represents a moment in the
fight, and describes each persons actions in that moment.
Hit B in gut with mop
Go over fence
Punch B in face
Climb to top of fence
Kick B in face
Body drop from fence
Get sword back
3,1, lose sword
Go down on knee
Flip B over head
Hold on to sword
kick G in stomach
take G, ram head into fence
throw G over fence
B loses sword
Try to stop G
Get sword back
Spin disarm on G's 1
Puts sword to G's throat behind
Go over G's head
G put's sword to B's throat, B yields.
I know that's a lot to absorb in one sitting, but therein lie the basics of
stage combat for the unknowing and untaught. If you enjoy it, do as much of it
as you can, and learn from as many different sources as you can. If you have any
questions concerning anything, PLEASE feel free to email me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
To sum up:
In order of importance, a fight must be:
Within the proper context of the play as the director envisions it.
Fluid and effective
Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse!!!!!
Only use appropriate weapons
Have fun, share what you have learned, and always try to learn more.